Biotechnology Archive

Transgenic Animals

NEW AND IMPROVED ANIMALS For thousands of years people have improved crop plants and domestic animals by selective breeding, mostly at a trial-and-error level. Woollier sheep and smarter sheep dogs have both been improved through many generations of selective breeding. …

BT Toxin and Butterflies

Another issue with transgenic plants is the effect they may have on nontarget organisms , that is, any plants or animals inadvertently exposed to the transgenic crop or insecticide. An article in the journal Nature suggested that Monarch butterflies were …

Insect Resistance-Transgenic Plants

Although weeds are a nuisance, even worse enemies of plants, and correspondingly more expensive to farmers, are: 1 . Insects and roundworms 2 . Fungal diseases (molds, blights, rusts, and rots) 3 . Viral diseases of plants It is possible …

Particle Bombardment Technology

Another strategy for getting a gene of interest into plant tissue is to blast the DNA through the plant cell walls with a particle gun. Unlike Ti plasmid transfer by Agrobacterium , this technique works with all types of plants. …

Genetic Engineering of Plants

The first step in genetically engineering a plant is to identify a gene that will confer a specific desirable trait on the plant.  In some ways, this is the hardest part of genetic engineering. The most desirable traits for a …

Artificial Chromosomes

BACs Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, i) use fertility F plasmid ii) 75-300 kb inserts possible iii) Developed during the humane genome project YACs Yeast Artificial Chromosomes i) Mimics Yeast chromosome ii) Contains all regions for replication (Yeast Ori and centromere) iii) …

Plasmids

Fundamental concepts and definition: Plasmids are autonomous extrachromosomal replicons found commonly in prokaryotes, but also in eukaryotes and their organelles. They are generally covalently closed and supefioiled circles of double-stranded DNA with sizes ranging from 1to 300 kbp. They contain …

Ribozymes in Gene Therapy

RNA molecules with catalytic ability are known as ribozymes . Some ribozymes act by cleaving other RNA molecules. Such ribozymes have catalytic domains that carry out the reaction fused to domains that recognize the substrate RNA by base pairing. If …