Biotechnology Archive

General Properties of Cloning Vectors

Cloning vectors are specialized plasmids (or other genetic elements) that will hold any piece of foreign DNA for further study or manipulation. The numbers and types of plasmids available for cloning have grown. In addition, other DNA elements are now …

Restriction Enzymes

The ability to isolate, separate, and visualize DNA fragments would be useless unless some method was available to cut the DNA into fragments of different sizes. In fact, naturally occurring restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases are the key to making …

Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis followed by staining with ethidium bromide is used to separate DNA fragments by size . The gel of gel electrophoresis consists of agarose , a polysaccharide extracted from seaweed that behaves like gelatin. Agarose is a powder that …

DNA Isolation & purification

Basic to all biotechnology research is the ability to manipulate DNA. First and foremost for recombinant DNA work, researchers need a method to isolate DNA from different organisms. Isolating DNA from bacteria is the easiest procedure because bacterial cells have …