Plant Tissue Culture

Plant tissue culture broadly refers to the in vitro cultivation of plants, seeds and various parts of the plants (organs, embryos, tissues, single cells, protoplasts). The cultivation process is …

Mineral Nutrients Required by Plants

Element Physiological Roles Deficiency symptoms NITROGEN Proteins, chlorophyll, nucleic acids. Cell membranes Enzymes, coenzymes etc. Chlorosis, Leaf fall Stunted growth Poor flowering SULPHUR Amino acids; Methionine, cysteine, Vitamins, biotin, …

Meiosis

A special type of cell division, which reduces the number of chromosomes to half in daughter cells as compared to parent cell. It always occur in diploid cells (2n) …

Mitosis

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell (the mother) divides to produce two new cells (the daughters) that are genetically identical. The mitosis is a …

Sex Linkage

´╗┐ The X and Y chromosomes are divided into two regions homologous and differential regions. In humans the homologous regions contain DNA sequences that are substantially similar on both …

Interaction of Genes

Genes act by controlling cellular chemistry. Early in the twentieth century, Archibald Garrod, an English physician, made the first observation supporting this insight. Garrod┬ánoted that several recessive human diseases …

Transgenic Animals

NEW AND IMPROVED ANIMALS For thousands of years people have improved crop plants and domestic animals by selective breeding, mostly at a trial-and-error level. Woollier sheep and smarter sheep …