Razzaq Archive

Immune Memory and Vaccination

Individuals who survive an infection normally become immune to that particular disease, although not to other diseases. This is because the immune system “remembers” foreign antigens, a process called immune memory . Next time the same antigen appears, it triggers …

Monoclonal Antibodies For Clinical Use

    There are many clinical uses for antibodies. They are used in diagnostic procedures (including the ELISA), for pregnancy testing, and to detect the presence of proteins characteristic of particular disease-causing agents. In the future, they may be used …

Antibody Structure

Each antibody consists of four protein subunits, two light chains and two heavy chains , arranged in a Y-shape. Disulfide bonds between cysteine amino acid residues hold the chains together. Each of the light and heavy chains consists of a …

The Great Diversity of Antibodies

Antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to alien molecules. Because there are an almost infinite variety of possible alien molecules, a correspondingly vast number of different antibody molecules are needed. The amino acids making up protein molecules can certainly …

Antibodies, Antigens, and Epitopes

Antigen The term antigen refers to any foreign molecule that provokes a response by the immune system. In practice, most antigens are proteins made by invading bacteria or viruses. In particular, glycoproteins, which carry carbohydrate residues, and lipoproteins, which carry lipid …

Antibody Structure and Function

The world is full of infectious microorganisms, all looking for a suitable host to infect. Bacteria, viruses, and protozoans are constantly attempting to gain entry into our tissues. If nothing was done about these attempts at invasion, no human could …

Physcia

General structure Physcia is foliose lichen. Physcia is divided into four regions internally. These regions are: 1. Upper cortex: It is present at the upper regions. It is composed of closely packed hyphae. Spaces are absent between them. If spaces are …